World Transport Policy & Practice – Vol. 20, No. 4. Sept. 2014

This issue of World Transport Policy and Practice is a significant milestone in the life of the journal. It marks 20 years of publication and for anyone with a serious interest in understanding the importance of transport, the links between transport, mobility and accessibility and the links with sustainability, health and quality of life, there is more than enough material here to work on.

At the outset we chose to emphasise the word “policy” and that remains a strong focus. 20 years of publication have examined policy in detail, more often the lack of intelligent policy, but always with a keen eye on “this is what we have to do if we want to improve things”. There is now no excuse for anyone anywhere in the world to sit at his or her desk on a Monday morning and wonder how to sort things out. The answers lie in our freely available archives.

uk-bus-queue-no excuses

World Transport Policy & Practice – 2014. Vol. 20, No. 4

 

Table of Contents

Editorial 3
Abstracts and Keywords 5
Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey with Implications for Sustainability John L. Renne and Peter Bennett 7
Policy pathways towards achieving a zero carbon transport sector in the UK in 2050 Harry William Vallack, Gary Haq, John Whitelegg and Howard Cambridge 28
How Accessible Are The Public Transport Networks Of Berlin And London? Christopher Paul Cook 43
Changing Do-nothing Baselines for Transport Investments Sudhir Gota, Lee Schipper Scholar 59

–> Download latest issue: Volume 20 Number 4

Editorial

This issue of World Transport Policy and Practice is a significant milestone in the life of the journal. It marks 20 years of publication and for anyone with a serious interest in understanding the importance of transport, the links between transport, mobility and accessibility and the links with sustainability, health and quality of life, there is more than enough material here to work on.

At the outset we chose to emphasise the word “policy” and that remains a strong focus. 20 years of publication have examined policy in detail, more often the lack of intelligent policy, but always with a keen eye on “this is what we have to do if we want to improve things”. There is now no excuse for anyone anywhere in the world to sit at his or her desk on a Monday morning and wonder how to sort things out. The answers lie in our freely available archives.

In one important sense the journal has failed. We wanted to improve policy and reveal really good ideas on how to do this to a wider audience because we thought this would help and it didn’t. The missing link is willingness to do something and we don’t yet know how to nurture and embed “will” in a wider decision-making, political and societal process.

The very old saying “you can take a horse to water but you can’t make it drink” must have been coined by people at the sharp end of sustainable transport. Globally we are drowning in excellent material on sustainable transport and how to correct negative trends and how to produce huge gains for quality of life, health, community, air quality, poverty and accessibility. We know that current transport priorities and spending damage the quality of life of children and older people and we know how to correct that. We know how to de-carbonise transport so that this sector or segment of life actually works to solve problems rather than make them worse.

Harry Vallack and his colleagues in this issue have explained how this can be done. We know how to reduce death and injury on the roads and we know how to improve air quality and create lively, viable communities. All these topics have been covered in detail in our last 20 years. The reality is we are just not doing it.

In one important sense the journal has failed. We wanted to improve policy and reveal really good ideas on how to do this to a wider audience because we thought this would help and it didn’t. The missing link is willingness to do something and we don’t yet know how to nurture and embed “will” in a wider decision-making, political and societal process.

In the last 20 years over 20 million human beings have been brutally killed in the road traffic environment. Many more than this have died as a result of poor air quality that is dominated by vehicle exhaust emissions. The public policy response has been and still is truly pathetic and is a stain on our so-called civilisation.

Our approach to dealing with failure is the same as that adopted by William Wilberforce and his colleagues in the 20 years of anti-slavery activity leading to the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. Wilberforce was rebuffed, rejected and ridiculed many times but he remained steadfast. He believed slavery was wrong and he redoubled his efforts to eliminate this dreadful scourge. We do not equate our efforts with the abolition of slavery but the negative effects of unsustainable transport are a dreadful scourge and must be eliminated and just as we cannot now imagine why anyone supported slavery in the 1790s so in coming decades we will wonder why anyone supported mass, motorised mobility and cared so little for dead and broken bodies.

So, following the example of William Wilberforce our response to failure is to redouble our efforts. In this issue of World Transport Policy and Practice we present some first class insights, analyses and policy recommendations. We focus on how to de-carbonise our transport systems (Vallack and his colleagues), how to recognise the over-riding importance of transport systems that deliver outcomes benefitting those with hearing, visual and other characteristics that might render transport arrangements more difficult than they need be (Chris Cook). We examine the deeply flawed process of evaluating transport projects (Sudhir Gota) and show that the use of “do-nothing” in transport appraisal is plain wrong and we explore how to develop a deeper understanding of transport issue through a detailed disaggregated approach to age, gender, race/ethnicity and income (John Renne).

In the meantime if any of our readers have any suggestions about how we encourage the horse to drink when we have taken it to the water trough please let us know.

John Whitelegg
Founding Editor

 

* The full text of this latest edition of WTPP is available HERE. Earlier editions of the jjournal are available at http://www.eco-logica.co.uk/WTPPdownloads.html and via World Streets at http://worldstreets.wordpress.com/tag/world-transport/

Abstracts and Keywords

Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey with Implications for Sustainability

– John L. Renne and Peter Bennett

Abstract:

This article summarizes patterns of mobility for urban travel across the United States based on the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). It examines how patterns vary by socioeconomics and highlights policy implications of current mobility patterns for creating a more sustainable society. Key findings include the reaffirmation that over 80 percent of trips in America are made by automobiles. While vehicle ownership is the most significant factor in variations in mode use, income, trip purpose, regional variation, race/ethnicity, gender and age are all factors examined for variation in travel behavior. The paper concludes with recommendations for promoting a sustainable society through shifting transportation priorities.

 Keywords: NHTS, Socioeconomics, Demographics, Urban Travel, Sustainability, Automobile Dependence

 

Policy pathways towards achieving a zero carbon transport sector in the UK in 2050

– Harry William Vallack, Gary Haq, John Whitelegg and Howard Cambridge

Abstract:

The effective decarbonisation of the transport sector will play a large role in achieving the UK government target of an 80 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases, from the 1990 baseline, by 2050. This paper presents a vision of a ‘zero carbon’ future for the UK transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the contributions that a range of behavioural, fiscal, spatial planning and technological carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction measures can make in assisting the UK to move towards a ‘zero carbon’ transport sector by 2050. Two scenarios for 2050 are compared: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario (with continuation of present trends and policies) and a maximum impact (MI) scenario in which all feasible interventions for achieving a ‘zero carbon’ UK transport sector are applied. Although road and rail transport could both achieve the zero CO2 emission target by 2050, emissions from aviation and shipping are more problematic. For the 2050 MI Scenario, the net result from the entire UK transport sector (including international aviation/shipping) is 76 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions compared with the 2050 BAU scenario. This falls short of a zero carbon target for UK transport and is due to the remaining CO2 emissions from aviation (56 per cent reduction) and shipping (49 per cent reduction). To improve the overall CO2 emissions reduction for transport would require more radical interventions or technological innovations for these two sectors than envisaged here. This visioning and backcasting analysis shows that the potential to reduce UK’s transport CO2 emissions is much larger than has hitherto been recognised.

 Keywords: Climate change mitigation, zero carbon vision, UK transport policy, scenario analysis

 

How Accessible Are The Public Transport Networks Of Berlin And London?

– Christopher Paul Cook

Abstract:

The onus on public transport operators to make their networks fully accessible to all passengers is becoming increasingly important and with an aging population will only grow in the coming years; but how successful are transport operators currently in achieving this aim? How can we measure effectively improvements in access to their networks? and can they ever achieve total success?

The main aims of current British and German transport policy have similar objectives. Key issues include reducing social exclusion and thereby allowing everyone, regardless of their background, employment status or level of disability to play a full and active role in society. This is most often achieved by having excellent and affordable public transport links within a short distance of major housing developments.

Keywords: Accessible Public Transport, Individual Mobility, Staff Presence and Training, Automation, Independence, Measuring Accessibility

 

Changing Do-nothing Baselines for Transport Investments

– Sudhir Gota, Lee Schipper Scholar

Abstract:

In the realm of conducting transport economic and environmental assessments, the option of “doing nothing,” or “no project/investment,” is considered as the baseline of the projects. Potential benefits of the project are always compared to a “do nothing” option before a decision is taken. However, this “do nothing” concept is a myth – “do something” is a reality, and considering this concept in baseline assessments could be a game changer for transport projects. In absence of a particular project or an investment, a suitable alternative would be found and implemented by the authorities. Thus, baselines need to be redefined and ‘without project’ scenario should not be just considered as ‘no improvement’ but, should ideally be considered as to what would ‘most likely’ happen if this project is not executed. By making this change in baseline, fundamentals of transport investment can be strengthened and this can lead to paradigm shift in transport. Considering BRT projects, assessment of transport expansion in the baseline was estimated and found to be a gamechanger in the economic analysis.

Keywords: Baseline, BRT, Vehicle kilometers traveled, infrastructure, cost-benefit analysis

 

 

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About the author:

f1fa6-ws-pic-whiteleggManaging Director of Eco-Logica, John Whitelegg is Visiting Professor of Sustainable Transport at Liverpool John Moores University, Professor of Sustainable Development at the Stockholm Environment Institute, and founder and editor of the Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice. Research interests encompass transport and the environment, definition of sustainable transport systems and a sustainable built environment, development of transport in third world cities focusing on the relationships between sustainability and human health, implementation of environmental strategies within manufacturing and service industry and development of environmental management standards. He has published widely on these topics. John is active in the Green party of England and Wales and is the national spokesperson on sustainable development.

About the journal:

World Transport Policy & Practice is a quarterly journal which provides a high quality medium for original and creative work in world transport.

WTPP has a philosophy based on the equal importance of academic rigour and a strong commitment to ideas, policies and practical initiatives that will bring about a reduction in global dependency on cars, lorries and aircraft.

WTPP has a commitment to sustainable transport which embraces the urgent need to cut global emissions of carbon dioxide, to reduce the amount of new infrastructure of all kinds and to highlight the importance of future generations, the poor, those who live in degraded environments and those deprived of human rights by planning systems that put a higher importance on economic objectives than on the environment and social justice.

WTPP embraces a different approach to science and through science to publishing. This view is based on an honest evaluation of the track record of transport planning, engineering and economics. All too often, these interrelated disciplines have embraced quantitative, elitist or mechanistic views of society, space and infrastructure and have eliminated people from the analysis.

To help it to reach a wide readership, encompassing advocates and activists as well as academics and advisers, WTPP is available free of charge.

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Eric Britton
9, rue Gabillot, 69003 Lyon France

Bio: Trained as a development economist, Eric Britton is a public entrepreneur specializing in the field of sustainability and social justice. Professor of Sustainable Development, Economy and Democracy at the Institut Supérieur de Gestion (Paris), he is also MD of EcoPlan Association, an independent advisory network providing strategic counsel for government and business on policy and decision issues involving complex systems, social-technical change and sustainable development. Founding editor of World Streets, his latest work focuses on the subject of equity, economy and efficiency in city transport and public space, and helping governments to ask the right questions and in the process, find practical solutions to urgent climate, mobility, life quality and job creation issues. Currently working on an open collaborative project, “BETTER CHOICES: Bringing Sustainable Transportation to Smaller Asian Cities” . More at: http://wp.me/PsKUY-2p7 * This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 licence.

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